Kia Cee'd: Smart Key System / Description and operation

Description
The SMART KEY system is a system that allows the user to access and operate a vehicle in a very convenient way. To access the vehicle, no traditional key or remote control unit is needed.
The user carries a SMART KEY FOB which does not require any conscious actions by the user (e.g. operate a RKE button). The SMART KEY system is triggered by pressing a push button in the door handle.
After being triggered the vehicle sends out a request in a limited range. If the SMART KEY FOB receives this request, it automatically sends a response to the vehicle. Then the system decides whether to perform a particular action (unlocking, locking…) or remain inactive.
In a similar manner the vehicle’s Electrical Steering Column Lock (ESCL) is released. Again, a communication between the vehicle and the SMART KEY FOB is needed before any actions will be performed.
The System offers the following features :
Passive unlock via door driver side and passenger side
Passive locking via door driver side and passenger side
Passive start
Passive access trunk/tailgate via the trunk/tailgate lid switch at the trunk/tailgate
Passive locking via tailgate
Max. 2 fobs can be handled by the system
Immobilizer backup antenna driver integrated into SSB for TP authentication (i.e. limp home mode)
Communication with engine management system
LF-RF communication
1.
Passive unlock
The system allows the user to access (unlock) the vehicle without performing any actions with the SMART KEY FOB. This feature could be different depending on platform as follows:
Pressing Push button in door handle
2.
Passive locking
The system allows the user to lock the vehicle by pushing a button on door handle with the SMART KEY FOB.
3.
Button start
The system allows the user to release ESCL and to switch the power modes (Off, Accessory, Ignition), as well as to start and stop the vehicle’s engine without performing any actions with the SMART KEY FOB. See Button Engine Start system specification.
4.
LIMP HOME Mode
Additionally, the system offers so called “limp home mode”, which is the user can operate all vehicle functions by pushing the key into the SSB.
Smart Key ECU (SMK ECU)
The SMK ECU manages all functions related to “Passive Unlock”, “Passive Lock” and “Passive Authorization for Engine Start Operation”.
It reads the inputs (Push button in door handle, Start Stop Button (SSB), PARK position Switch), controls the outputs (e.g. exterior and interior antennas), and communicates via the CAN as well as a single line interface to further devices of the car.
For communication with the SMART KEY FOB, SMK ECU generates a request (challenge) as an encoded and modulated 125 (or 134.2) kHz signal at the inductive antenna outputs and receives the SMART KEY FOB’s response via the external RF receiver.
The main functional blocks of the SMK ECU are:
Power supply
Microcontroller with FLASH Memory
Single Line Interface to EMS
Input stage
LF antenna amplifier/driver
CAN communication with BCM
The LF antenna amplifier/driver generates a 125 (or 134.2) kHz sinusoidal carrier signal which is distributed to the different antennas.
Smart Key FOB
The system supports up to 2 SMART KEY FOBs.
The main functions of the SMART KEY FOB are:
Passive functionality: receives LF-challenge and sends automatically RF response.
Classic RKE function by action up to 4 push buttons.
Transponder-functionality in case of a flat battery or a disturbed communication.
Antennas
1.
Emitting LF Antennas:
Inductive antennas in and at the vehicle are used to transform the current, driven by the SMK ECU antenna driver, into a 125 (or 134.2) kHz magnetic field, which is the carrier for the SMART KEY challenge.
Three antennas cover the vehicle’s exterior: two antennas in the Door Handles (DS and PS) cover the area around the doors; one antenna in the rear bumper covers the area around the trunk or tailgate.
Up to three antennas cover the vehicle’s interior and the trunk or tailgate interior: two in the passenger compartment and one in the tailgate room or trunk.
2.
Bidirectional Immobilizer Antenna (for Limp Home):
The Immobilizer Backup Antenna is used for sending and receiving data: it emits a magnetic field (125 - 135 kHz challenge) and receives changes in the field strength (response of Transponder).
3.
External Receiver
The SMART KEY FOB’s response is received via the external RF receiver, which is connected to the SMK ECU via a serial communication Line.
The SMK ECU provides a connector pin for the serial communication Line.
Door Handle
The front door handles of the two doors (driver door / passenger door) are equipped with emitting LF-antennas to emit the 125 (or 134.2) kHz signals. The front door handles are also equipped with a push button.
Push Button
The push button in door handle serves as a trigger to indicate the user’s intent to unlock or lock the vehicle.
The push buttons are installed at front doors, integrated into the door handles.
Another button is installed at the trunk or tailgate lid.
Operation
Passive Functions
The system allows the user to access the vehicle without having to perform any actions (e.g. RKE button pressing) with the SMART KEY FOB. It is sufficient that a valid SMART KEY FOB is located within a defined and limited range with respect to the vehicle. So the system is capable of detecting and authenticating a SMART KEY FOB in the ranges as specified below.
Operating Range
The SMART KEY FOB receives and interprets a challenge sent from the vehicle via the exterior antennas in a free space range of min. 0.7m measured around the exterior antennas which are integrated in the door handles; refer to the below given picture. The trunk or tailgate access range is also min. 0.7m measured from the antenna position.
The SMART KEY FOB receives and interprets a challenge sent from the vehicle via the exterior antennas in a free space range of min. 0.7m measured around the exterior antennas which are integrated in the door handles; refer to the below given picture
Passive Access (Passive Entry)
Pressing one of the push buttons in the door handles when all doors locked indicates the operator’s intent to access the vehicle and thus triggers the system for unlock
Passive Locking (Exit)
Pressing one of the push buttons in the door handles when one of the following condition is fulfilled:
At least one door is unlocked and two_steps timer is not running or
Two_steps timer is running and one of the push button except Front Left side is triggered
indicates the operator’s intent to lock the vehicle and thus triggers the system for a lock.
Passive Open Tailgate
Pressing the Trunk/Tailgate Lid Switch when Trunk/Tailgate is closed indicates the operator’s intent to open the Trunk/Tailgate and thus triggers the system. Subsequently, the SMK ECU sends a LF-challenge to the SMART KEY FOB via the exterior bumper antenna. The SMART KEY FOB answers with a RF-response. If the received response matches the expected answer, SMK ECU sends a “Trunk/Tailgate open” message via the CAN network.
Passive Trunk/Tailgate Warning (Sedan only)
Whenever the trunk/tailgate is closed, SMK ECU uses a suitable search strategy to avoid trunk/tailgate buzzer warning by a fob outside the vehicle. Then SMK searches for a SMART KEY FOB in the interior of the trunk/tailgate. If a valid SMART KEY FOB is found in the trunk/tailgate, the SMK ECU activates SMK external buzzer (TBD) to inform the user that the trunk/tailgate has been closed with a fob inside the trunk/tailgate.
SMK will send the trunk/tailgate open command to BCM for trunk/tailgate reopening if trunk/tailgate reopening bit is set(BK)For this functionality, a “valid” SMART KEY FOB means any SMART KEY FOB that belongs to the vehicle, even if it’s DEACTIVATED.
  
A blind spot in the trunk/tailgate similar to any RF disturbance may lead to no trunk/tailgate warning. Due to the penetration of the bumper antenna into the trunk/tailgate area the lid may open without an Identification Device outside.
A blind spot in the trunk/tailgate similar to any RF disturbance may lead to no trunk/tailgate warning
Smart Key Reminder 1
1.
Preconditions:
All terminals OFF & at least one door open & locking status is not locked checked by SMK periodically every 100ms, as long as CAN/LIN active.
2.
Event:
At least 1 door knob status changed from unlock to lock.
3.
SMK actions:
IF NO FOB-IN ACTIVE
SMK performs a search for the fobs in the interior of the vehicle. The same LF-strategy has to be used as it is defined for the ID out warning (registering only, no authentication
IF FOB-IN ACTIVE
SMK search valid TP
If no fob or no TP has been found, no action is required.
If any valid fob or valid TP has been found, SMK unlocks the vehicle by sending a CAN Key Reminder unlock message with the fob number.
If any valid fob has been found, SMK unlocks the vehicle by sending a CAN/LIN Key Reminder unlock message with the fob number.
Smart Key Reminder 2
1.
Preconditions:
All terminals OFF & any door (including trunk/tailgate) open & no FOB-IN & no locking status (checked by SMK periodically every 100ms, as long as CAN/LIN active)
2.
Vehicle action:
Closing last door or trunk/tailgate with knobs locked state, or with a locking in progress
3.
SMK actions:
Before elapsing 500ms after the closing if all doors are locked then:
IF NO FOB-IN ACTIVE
SMK performs a search for the fobs in the interior of the vehicle.
The same LF-strategy has to be used as it is defined for the ID out warning (registering only, no authentication)
IF FOB-IN ACTIVE
SMK search valid TP
If no fob has been found, no action is required.
If any valid fob or valid TP has been found, SMK sends unlock command via CAN and activates ext. buzzer warning.
If any valid fob has been found, SMK sends unlock command via CAN/LIN and activates ext. buzzer warning.
Smart Key Door Lock Warning
Door Lock Warning 1
1.
If terminal state is ACC or IGN and all doors are closed and that user triggers a SMK lock, a search is started at the exterior of the vehicle from the side of the trigger.
2.
If no valid Fob is found no action is required, but if a valid Fob is found then a Buzzer warning shall be started.
3.
If "b_TailgateOption == On" and "b_TailgateLockUnlockOption == On" are fullfilled, Lock warning is including tailgate as a door and tailgate lockunlock knob as a door unlock switch.
Door Lock Warning 2
1.
If terminal state is OFF and not all doors are closed and that user triggers a SMK lock, a search is started at the exterior of the vehicle from the side of the trigger.
2.
If no valid Fob is found no action is required, but if a valid Fob is found then a Buzzer warning shall be started.
3.
If "b_TailgateOption == On" and "b_TailgateLockUnlockOption == On" are fullfilled, Lock warning is including tailgate as a door and tailgate lockunlock knob as a door unlock switch.
Door Lock Warning 3
1.
If terminal state is OFF and ATWS is considered as Disarmed and all doors are closed and that user triggers a SMK lock, a search is started at the Interior of the vehicle;
2.
if no valid Fob is found the search for SMK locking will be started, but if a valid Fob is found then a Buzzer warning shall be started.
3.
If "b_TailgateOption == On" and "b_TailgateLockUnlockOption == On" are fullfilled, Lock warning is including tailgate as a door and tailgate lockunlock knob as a door unlock switch.
Smartkey Lamp Warning
1.
If terminal state is ACC or IGN and vehicle speed is less than 3km/h, a periodic search (every 3s) is done at the interior of the vehicle to check that the valid fob is still in the in the vehicle.
2.
If no valid Fob is found a Warning is started, but if a valid Fob is found then no action is started.
Failsafe Functions (Backup For Limp Home)
In case of a discharged battery of the SMART KEY FOB or disturbed transmission, the following functions are available:
Unlocking / locking of doors or trunk (or tailgate depending of the vehicle configuration): use of mechanical key
User Information Functions
ID OUT Warning
1.
Preconditions:
(ACC or IGN1) & (any door open or trunk/tailgate open)
2.
Event:
The last opened door is closed
3.
SMK action:
SMK searches for a SMART KEY FOB in the interior.
If no valid SMART KEY FOB is found, the SMK activates external buzzer and also sends ID OUT warning via CAN (exterior buzzer warning and internal buzzer warning).
If a door is opened and closed again during terminals on and inside valid fob, SMK re-enables the authentication and stops the warning. If the terminal is in ACC, SMK shall turn on immobilizer lamp.
  
If there is a LF error (LF overheating or LF antenna failure), the system will have the same behavior as it is with no fob found.
Fob Battery Low Voltage Detection
To detect fob low battery condition, certain battery voltage measurement and low voltage detection strategy are implemented into fob. The measurement of the battery voltage will be done if fob button is pressed or if a LF measurement command is received.
Learning Description
In this chapter, the learning procedure for SMK, ESCL and FOBs is described.
For the learning of the SMK, ESCL and FOBs, it's necessary to have a connection to the diagnostic tool.
Learning MODE
Whatever the mode, the learning procedures are managed by the SMK.
Prior to start learning service, Fob-In signal must be active and the vehicle secret code (called as PIN code) should be known.
Teaching MODE
This mode is used by the dealers in order to replace SMK and/or ESCL and/or the set of keys, or to register additional keys for an existing system. That means the system already has been learnt with certain PIN Code. The PIN Code is fixed for the life time of the vehicle, therefore the same PIN Code must be used in this mode. Otherwise learning will be failed
Teaching MODE Procedure Description (Step By Step)
Objective: Key teaching procedure at service station
Initial state:
SMK replacement: SMK is not learnt and ESCL and SMART FOB are already learnt with same PIN code
ESCL replacement: ESCL is not learnt, SMK and SMART FOB are already learnt with same PIN code
Additional or new keys teaching: SMK and ESCL are already learnt with same PIN code

Starting After Replacing (Virgin Start)
Starting is possible by following process after replacing new smart key unit, FOB key or ESCL.
It is for starting at virgin condition
All related parts are virgin condition (Smart key, ESCL ECM)
ESCL is always unlock at virgin
Press brake pedal in P or N range
Push the start button once with virgin smart key.

Components and components location
Component Location (1)   1. Smart key unit 2. Interior antenna 1 3. Interior antenna 2 4. Buzzer 5. Door outside handle Componen ...

Smart Key Diagnostic Repair procedures
Inspection Self Diagnosis With GDS Smart key system defects can be quickly diagnosed with the GDS. GDS operates actuator quickly to monitor, input/output value and self diagnosi ...

Other information:

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